Tag Archives: PowerShell

Using Azure AD Managed Service Identity to Access Microsoft Graph with Azure Functions and PowerShell

Recently Microsoft released an exciting new preview in Azure AD: Managed Service Identity! You can go and read the details at the Enterprise Mobility + Security blog, and some examples of usage scenarios: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/blog/keep-credentials-out-of-code-introducing-azure-ad-managed-service-identity/

Managed Service Identity makes it possible to keep credentials out of code, and that is a very inviting prospect. As I have been exploring Microsoft Graph in different scenarios using PowerShell, I thought I should have a go at using Managed Service Identity in an Azure Function and run some PowerShell commands to get data from the Microsoft Graph. Lets get started!

Configuring the Azure Function

First, if you haven’t already created an existing Azure Function App, go ahead and do that. Here is my Function App I will use in this demo:

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Next, open the Function App and go to Platform features, and then click on Managed service identity:

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Under Managed service identity, select to Register with Azure Active Directory:

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After saving you should get a successful notification that the managed service identity has been registered.

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Let’s check what has happened in Azure AD, to that I will use the AzureAD PowerShell CmdLets. After connecting to my Azure AD tenant, I will try to get the Service Principal:

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And get some properties of that object:

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We can see that the Service Principal object is connected to the Azure Function App and of type ServiceAccount.

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Now, we are ready for the next step, which is to create a function that will get data from Microsoft Graph. But first we will need to give this Service Principal some permissions.

Permissions and Roles for the Managed Service Identity

Depending of what you want to do with your Function App, the managed service identity, represented by the service principal, will need some permissions to access resources. You could give the service principal rights to Azure resources like Virtual Machines, or to access Key Vault secrets (a nice blog post on that here: https://blog.kloud.com.au/2017/09/19/enabling-and-using-managed-service-identity-to-access-an-azure-key-vault-with-azure-powershell-functions/).

In my scenario I want to access the Microsoft Graph, and specifically get some Directory data like user information from my Azure AD. When accessing Microsoft Graph you would normally register an Azure AD Application and set up Application or Delegated Permissions, and follow the authentication flow for that. But in this case I want the Service Principal to be able to directly access Directory Data, so I will have to give my Service Principal permission to do that.

The following Azure AD commands adds my service principal to the AD Directory Role “Directory Readers”:

image When listing membership in that role I can see my Service Principal has been added:

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Creating a PowerShell Function for the Managed Service Identity

In your Function App, you can now create a new Function, selecting language PowerShell, and in this case I will create it as a HttpTrigger Function:

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If you have been following the flow of the blog post until now, we can now check if the Function App is ready for using the Managed Service Identity (MSI). Two environment variables will be created, and you can check if they exist by going to Platform features, and then selecting Advanced tools (Kudo). Under environment you would se something like this if everything is ready (it could take a little time, so re-check until its there):

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These two environment variables will be needed in the Azure Function, so we will start by getting that:

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If I run the Function I can see from the output that I was able to retrieve the environment variables:

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Next I will specify some URI and parameters for my authentication request using the managed service identity. I will need to specify the version (currently 2017-09-01 as specified in the documentation), and since I want to get data from the Microsoft Graph, I will need to specify that as the resource URI. I then build the URI for getting the authentication token:

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With that, I can now do an authentication request, which if successful will return an access token I can use as a Bearer token in later queries agains the Microsoft Graph:

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Let’s do another test run and verify that I can get an Access Token:

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Querying the Microsoft Graph

With a valid Access Token, and with the correct permissions for the resources I will want to access, I can now run some Microsoft Graph API queries.

In my example I have some test users in my tenant named after the popular Seinfeld show. In fact I have set a “Seinfeld” department attribute value on those. So my query for getting those users would be:

https://graph.microsoft.com/v1.0/users?$filter=Department eq ‘Seinfeld’

A great way to test Microsoft Graph Commands is to use the Graph Explorer, https://developer.microsoft.com/en-us/graph/graph-explorer, and if you sign in to your own tenant you can query your own data. As an example, I have showed that here:

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In my Azure Function I can define the same query like this (PS! note the escape character before the $filter for it to work):

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And with that I can request the user list using Microsoft Graph and a Authorization Header consisting of the Access Token as a Bearer:

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Let’s output some data from that response:

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And there it is! I’m able to successfully query the Microsoft Graph using Managed Service Identity in an Azure Function, without handling any credentials.

For reference, I have attached both the Azure AD PowerShell  commands, and the Function PowerShell commands below from my Gist. Enjoy!

Azure AD PowerShell SPN commands:

Azure Function PowerShell Trigger:

Looking in to the Changes to Token Lifetime Defaults in Azure AD

In a recent announcement at the Enterprise Mobility Blog, https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/enterprisemobility/2017/08/31/changes-to-the-token-lifetime-defaults-in-azure-ad/, there will be a change for default settings to the Token Lifetime Defaults in Azure Active Directory for New Tenants only. This change will not affect existing old Tenants.

I have summarized the changes in this table:

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This is great news for many customers to remove user frustration over authentication prompts when refresh tokens expired after a period of inactivity. For example, if I havent used an App on my mobile phone for 14 days, I have to reauthenticate with my work/school account again to get a new Access Token and Refresh Token. Some Apps I use quite often, like Outlook and OneDrive, and by keeping active the Refresh Token will be continously renewed as well together with the Access Token (which by default is valid for 1 hour). For my existing tenant this would mean that keeping active, and at least using the Refresh Token inside the 14 Days, I will get new Access and Refresh Tokens, but after 90 Days the Single and/or Multi factor Refresh Token Max Age will be reached, and I have to reauthenticate again in my Apps.

Some Apps I will naturally use more rarely, for example Power BI, Flow, PowerApps etc. (this will be different for each user type), but I risk having to reauthenticate every time if I only access these Apps every other week.

So for New Tenants this has now changed, as Refresh Tokens will be valid for 90 Days, and if you use the Refresh Token inside that period, you will get 90 more days. And furthermore, the Max Age for Single/Multi factor Refresh Token will have a new default of Until-revoked, so basically it will never expire.

Keep in mind though, that Azure AD Administrators can revoke any Refresh Token at any time. Refresh Tokens will also be invalid if the authenticated users password changes or expire. It is also nice to be aware of that every time a Refresh Token is used to get a new Access Token, Conditional Access and Identity Protection from Azure AD will be used to check if the User or Device is in a Compliant State with any policies defined.

A few words on the Confidential Clients also. Confidential Clients are typically Web Apps that are able to securely store Tokens and identity itself to Azure AD, so after the User has Authenticated and actively Consented to access specific Resources, the resulting Access and Refresh Tokens can be used until revoked, as long as the Refresh Token are used at least once inside 90 Days (New Tenants) or 14 Days (Old Tenants).

If you want to read more deep dive on configurable Token Lifetimes, you can follow this link: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/active-directory-configurable-token-lifetimes.

Azure AD PowerShell examples for changing Token Lifetime Defaults

I have created some Azure AD PowerShell V2 examples for how you can change the Token Lifetime Policy defaults in your organization.

First connect to your Tenant and see if there already are defined any policies (normally there would be nothing):

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Then lets make a definition that reflects the new defaults for New Tenants:

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So if you already have an existing old tenant, and you want to change the default policy so that it reflects the new Token Lifetime settings, you can run this command:

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A different scenario, lets say I have a New Tenant, and want to use the old default values instead. I will make a definition that reflects that:

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And create a policy using these definitions:

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Last, I will leave you with commands for changing any existing Azure AD policies:

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The complete list of Azure AD PowerShell CmdLets used and examples can be found here at my Gist repository.

Hopefully this has been informative and helpful for Azure AD Administrators and others Smile!

Experts and Community unite again at Experts Live Europe in Berlin

Last week I was back at this great Community conference, previously known as System Center Universe Europe (SCU Europe), and this year for the first time under the name Experts Live Europe, part of the Experts Live network (http://www.expertslive.org). This conference is well known for its great content, top speakers, sponsors and great community, where you meet friends old and new, and generally have a great time the 3 days the conference lasts.

This year the conference was held in the BCC by Alexanderplatz in Berlin, the same venue as last year. With almost 400 people from 28(!) different countries, I was very proud again to be among the great set of Experts and MVPs presenting sessions on topics from Cloud, Datacenter, Management, PowerShell, IoT, Azure, EMS, and more.

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I presented two breakout sessions, the first one was about how to “Take your Azure AD and Intune Management Skills to the Next Level with Microsoft Graph API and PowerShell”, a practical and demo-heavy session.  The PowerShell script I used in the demos can be found in my GitHub repository: https://github.com/skillriver/ELEU2017-Public

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The second session I presented was on “Mastering Azure Active Directory v2”, where I discussed features in the new Azure AD Portal for Azure AD Administrators that have previously used the classic portal or Office 365 admin portal for managing users, licenses, and admin roles and more. We also looked at the Azure AD v2 PowerShell, that will replace the v1 (MSOL) cmdlets. Look to my Gist repository for several examples on using Azure AD v2 cmdlets, https://gist.github.com/skillriver.

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I also had the pleasure to be in a discussion panel with Microsoft Intune Principal Program Manager Simon May, CDM MVP Tudor Damian and my fellow Norwegian EMS MVP Jan Ketil Skanke, where we had good questions and discussions from the attendance on the topic Identity, Security and Compliance.

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The days went by really fast, and soon it was time for the closing note and the traditional trivia with funny stories and facts from the past conferences. One of the questions was how many have attended all 5 conferences (speakers, sponsors and attendees), the correct answer was not known, but the audience who had done this was invited onto the stage, and 10 people (in addition to Marcel) had their loyalty appriciated with claps and cheers from the room. And, I’m one of those that has been to all conferences 🙂

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So with that ended the 5th annual conference that used to be SCU Europe and is now Experts Live. I have made some great friends there, and the conference has a family feeling going back there every year. There has been some early mornings, and some late nights, as it should be.

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Thanks for me, Berlin and Experts Live, next year it will another place, it will be exiting to see where it will be. I know I will be back, hope you will to!

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Speaking at Experts Live Europe 2017, Berlin!

Once again I’m very proud and excited to announce that I will be speaking at Experts Live Europe 2017, in Berlin August 23rd to 25th.

Experts Live Europe, previously known as System Center Universe Europe, is celebrating 5 years anniversary this year, after beeing arranged in Bern, Basel x 2, and last year moved to Berlin, where it was announced that the conference in the future would be part of the Experts Live Network!

SCUE16 – System Center Universe Europe becomes Experts Live Europe from itnetX AG on Vimeo.

I have been lucky to attend every single one of the previous conferences, and last year I presented a couple of sessions there as well. I have got to know some great community leaders and IT pros from all over the world at this conference, it really is one of the best community conferences around, as well as top experts and contents in sessions!

This year I will present 2 sessions:

I will also be running a Discussion Panel on “Identity, Security & Compliance” http://sched.co/B9TK , together with Simon May, Principal Program Manager – Intune, Microsoft, EMS MVP Jan Ketil Skanke, and CDM MVP Tudor Damian.

And, in addition to the already mentioned great experts, content and community, there’s also great parties there!

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Read my recap of last years conference at the same venue here: https://gotoguy.blog/2016/08/31/experts-and-community-unite-at-last-ever-scu_europe-2016-expertslive-next/

If you haven’t already registered, and are still wondering wether to go, read more about the conference and register here: http://www.expertslive.eu.

Hope to see you there!

Working with Azure AD Extension Attributes with Azure AD PowerShell v2

In a recent blog post, https://gotoguy.blog/2017/02/17/assign-ems-license-with-azure-ad-v2-powershell-and-dynamic-groups/, I wrote about how to use extension attributes in local Active Directory and Azure AD, for the purpose of using these extension attributes for determine membership i Azure AD Dynamic Groups.

In the process of investigating my Azure AD users (synchronized and cloud based),  I wanted to see how I could use Azure AD v2 PowerShell CmdLets for querying and updating these extension attributes. This blog post is a summary of tips and commands, and also some curious things I found. There is a link to a Gist with all the PowerShell Commands at the end of the blog post if you prefer to skip to that.

Lets start by looking into one user:

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For my example user I have the following output:

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In the above linked blog post, I wrote about using the msDS_cloudExtensionAttribute1 and 2 for assigning licenses, so I see those values and more.

I can also serialize the user object to JSON by using $aadUser.ToJson(), which also will show me the value of the extension attributes:

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I can look into and explore the user object with Get-Member:

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From there I can see that that the Extension Property, which is of type System.Collections.Generic.Dictionary supports Get and Set. So lets look into how to update those extension attributes. This obviously only work on cloud homed users, as synchronized users must be updated in local Active Directory. This series of commands shows how to add extension attributes for cloud users:

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The next thing I thought about, was how can I make a list of all users with their extension attributes? I ended up with the following, where you either can get all users or make a filtered collection, and from there loop through and read any extension attributes:

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When I look into my extended users list object, I can list the users and values with extension values:

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So to some curios things I found. As explained in the blog post https://gotoguy.blog/2017/02/17/assign-ems-license-with-azure-ad-v2-powershell-and-dynamic-groups/, if you are running a Hybrid Exchange organization you would probably use extensionAttribute1..15 instead of the msDS_cloudExtensionAttribute. In another Azure AD tenant I tested on that, but using the commands above I never could list out the extensionAttribute1..15 on my users. I never found a way to validate and check those values, but if I created a Dynamic Group using for example extensionAttribute1 or 2, members would be populated! So it was obvious that the value was there, I just can’t find a way to check it.

I even tested on Graph API, but did not find any extensionAttribute there either, only msDS_cloudExtensionAttribute. For example by querying:

https://graph.microsoft.com/v1.0/users/<userid or upn>?$select=extension_66868723f2984d3e8c18f0ebd134240f_msDS_cloudExtensionAttribute2

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I can see my extension value.

However, if I try: https://graph.microsoft.com/v1.0/users/<userid or upn>?$select=extensionAttribute2, I cannot see the value even I know it’s there.

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Strange thing, hopefully I will find out some more on this, and please comment if you have any ideas. I will also ask this from the Azure AD team.

Here is the gist with all the commands:

Assign EMS License with Azure AD v2 PowerShell and Dynamic Groups

While we are waiting for support for group based licensing in the Azure AD Portal I have created this Azure AD v2 PowerShell solution for assigning EMS (Enterprise Mobility + Security) license plans using Azure AD v2 PowerShell module and Dynamic Groups.

The PowerShell CmdLets used here requires the Azure AD v2 PowerShell Module, which you can read about how to install or update here: https://gist.github.com/skillriver/35fba9647fbfbe3e99718f0ad734b241

Source of Authority, Attributes, Sync and Dynamic Groups

In my scenario I want to use extension attributes to automatically calculate membership using Dynamic Groups in Azure AD. The members of these groups will be assigned the EMS licenses.

Most organizations will have an on-premises Active Directory synchronizing to Azure AD, so the source of authority is important for where I set the value of the extension attributes, as I want my Dynamic Groups to calculate membership for both On-premise and Cloud based users (I have some Cloud based admin account I want to license as well).

So, lets take a look at my local Active Directory environment. If you have Exchange installed in your organization, you will have extended the schema with extensionAttribute1..15.

But in my case, I never have installed any versions of Exchange in my current environment, and only used Exhange Online, so I don’t have those attributes. Instead I have msDS-cloudExtensionAttribute1..20.

So I decided on using the following attributes locally in AD:

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I have previously used ENTERPRISEPACK (SkuPartNumber for Office 365 E3) for licensing Office 365 E3 plans. In this scenario I will use the msDS-cloudExtensionAttribute2 for either EMS (SkuPartNumber for EMS E3) or EMSPREMIUM (SkuPartNumber for EMS E5).

You can also use Active Directory PowerShell to set these values on-premises:

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Note that if I had Exchange installed, I could just have used extensionAttribute1 and extensionAttribute2, and these would be automatically synchronized to Azure AD in an Exchange Hybrid deployment. However, in my case I need to manually specify the option for Directory extension attribute sync in Azure AD Connect:

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And then selecting to synchronize those two selected attributes:

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After these Directory extensions are configured and synchronized to Azure AD, I can check these attributes with the following AAD v2 command:

Get-AzureADUser –ObjectId <youruser> | Select -ExpandProperty ExtensionProperty

In my environment I will find these attributes:

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Note that the msDS_cloudExtensionAttribute1..2 has now been created in Azure AD for me, and been prefixed with extension_<GUID>_, where the GUID represent the Tenant Schema Extension App:

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So now I know that my on-premises users with values for msDS_cloudExtensionAttribute1..2 will be synchronized to the extension attributes in Azure AD. But what about users that are source from Cloud? There are no graphical way to set these extension attributes, so we will have to do that with Azure AD v2 PowerShell. In my example I have a Cloud admin account I want to set this attribute extension for (scripts are linked later in the blog):

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With that, I now have configured the users I want with the extension attribute values, and are ready to create the Dynamic Groups.

Creating Dynamic Groups for Assigning EMS Licenses

Earlier in the blog post I mentioned that I wanted to use the msDS_cloudExtensionAttribute2 for assigning either EMS E3 or EMS E5 licenses. If I run the following command, I get my Subscriptions, here listed by SkuId an SkuPartNumber. EMSPREMIUM refers to EMS E5, while EMS refers to the original EMS which is now E3.

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On that basis I will create 2 Dynamic Groups, one that looks for EMSPREMIUM and one that looks for EMS in the extension attribute. You can create Dynamic Groups in the new Azure AD Portal, or by running these PowerShell commands:

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After a while memberships in these dynamic groups will be processed, and I can check members with the following commands:

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In my environment I will have this returned, showing users with membership in the EMS E3 and EMS E5 group respectively:

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Before I proceed I will save these memberships to objects variables:

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Assigning the EMS licenses based on group membership

With users, attributes and dynamic groups membership prepared, I can run the actual PowerShell commands for assigning the licenses. I also want to make sure that any users previously assigned to another EMS license will be changed to reflect the new, so that they are not double licensed. Meaning, if a user already has an EMS E3 license, and the script adds EMS E5, I will remove the EMS E3 and vice versa.

The full script is linked below, but I will go through the main parts here first. First I will save the SkuId for the EMS subscriptions:

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Then I will loop through the membership objects saved earlier:

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Next, create License Object for adding and removing license:

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Then create a AssignedLicenses object, adding the AssignedLicense object from above. In addition, I check if the user has an existing EMS license to be removed, and if so add that SkuId to RemoveLicenses. If there are no license to remove, I still need to specify an empty array for RemoveLicenses.

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And then, update the user at the end of the loop:

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After looping through the EMS E3 members, a similar loop through EMS E5 members:

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So to summarize, with this script commands you can assign either EMS E3 or E5 licenses based on user membership in Dynamic Groups controlled by extension attributes. In a later blog post I will show how we can consistenly apply these licenses, stay tuned!

Link to the full script is below:

Link to script for managing and listing extension attribute properties for your users:

Session Recap, PowerShell Scripts and Resources from session on Azure AD Management Skills at NICConf 2017

Last week at NICConf I presented two sessions on Management of Microsoft Azure AD, Application Publishing with Azure AD – the New Management Experience! and Take your Azure AD Management Skills to the Next Level with Azure AD Graph API and Powershell!

In the last session i presented demos and scripts with some technical details, so in this blog post I will link to those PowerShell scripts together with some explanations. See also my slides for the sessions published here: https://docs.com/jan-vidar-elven-1/7677/nicconf-2017, and the session recording might be available later which I will link to.

First i talked about the new Azure AD PowerShell v2 module and install info:

Then connecting and exploring some objects and license info:

Then performing some Administration tasks including creating Dynamic Groups, setting user thumbnail photo, adding licenses and changing passwords:

In the next part of my session I went on to talk about the Azure AD Graph API and the Microsoft Graph API. The Microsoft Graph API will eventually be the “one API to rule them all”, as Azure AD also can be accessed by that API, but there are still use cases for the Azure AD Graph API.

In either case, to be able to use the APIs you must create and register an Azure AD Application of type Web App/Api, and give that Application the needed permissions to access the APIs. I showed in my session how to do this in the portal, and here you have a PowerShell Script for creating that same type of Application, this example for accessing the Azure AD Graph API:

Note that for the above script, you will need to note some output and manual operations:

  • Take a note of the Application ID, you will need that later:
    azureadapp
  • Take note of the Key Secret, you will need that later also:
    azureadappkeysecret
  • Application must be manually granted permission here, as this per now cannot be automated with PowerShell:
    azureadappgrantpermission

By the way, you should newer share this App Id and key secret publically (as I have just done here 😉 Other people could use that same information to access your APIs and Azure AD info, so take care to protect that info! (Of course I have deleted that info after showing this here 😉

Now, with this App registered in Azure AD, we can now start managing Azure AD via REST API calls, for example from PowerShell. The following script shows how we can get Self Service Password Registration Activity via the Azure AD Graph API, specifically we will use the Reporting API (https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/azure/ad/graph/howto/azure-ad-reports-and-events-preview). Note that the script will need the App Id and Key value noted from above:

With that last export to a Csv file I can import it to Power BI as a table, and create a report and a dashboard on it, for example showing which password reset registration method the users configured, what user and role type did the registration and the count and date for the registrations:

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In the session we also looked at the new Content Pack for Azure AD, showing sign-in and audit events, and also how you can get data from the Microsoft Graph API using a OData Feed:

I hope this scripts will be as useful for you as it is for me! Good luck with taking your management of Azure AD to the next level with Azure AD PowerShell and Graph APIs!